SNAG 2018

So much to see and do at the SNAG conference this week, but try these for starters!

For those of y’all headed to Portland for the SNAG conference, here’s a few things I’m involved with that I’d love for you to check in on:

1\ Crossings

See works by SMG and CMAG members at Crossings in the Pearl District

Crossings is a combined show of Portland Creative Metal Arts Guild (CMAG) and Seattle Metals Guild (SMG) members. Come check out the best of the Northwest!

It’s on at: Annie Meyer Gallery
Wednesday 23r​d​ May-Saturday the 26t​h​ May
12-5:30pm and during Gallery Crawl – 5-8pm on Thursday
120 NW 9th Ave Ste 102, Portland, Oregon 97209

The Crossings show explores the intersection of diverse disciplines, processes, and media. Artists were encouraged to work across craft boundaries such as incorporating ceramics, wood, or glass. Collaborations between artists were also encouraged. This show represents a cross section of our metals communities and a wide variety of styles and materials will be represented, including jewelry and sculpture.

It’s the only exhibition I’m involved in that’s in a real gallery, so please get out and support it!

/ / /

The rest are a part of SNAG’s own Adorned Spaces, which runs Thursday, May 24th, 10:00 am – 6:00 pm and Friday, May 25th, 10:00 am – 8:00 pm at the conference venue: Portland Marriott Downtown Waterfront, 1401 SW Naito Pkwy, Portland, OR.

2\ (Un)common Interest

Curated by (and including) Sharon Massey, it showcases: April Wood, Ben Dory, Kat Cole, Jim Dunn, Michael Dale Bernard, Jessica Tolbert, Maia Leppo, Lynn Batchelder, Melissa Cameron, Sarah Holden and Michael Hull. Need a hint as to why we’re all together in this one? We all like to work in STEEL! (who doesn’t?)

See in rooms G,H and I next to the main ballroom that is hosting all of the presentations.

3\ In Touch

Katja Toporski and Anja Eichler’s co-curated exhibition from Munich Jewellery Week, In Touch, is getting a second outing just for SNAG, and I for one am very pumped to finally see it! And see it I will, long and often, as it is kitty-corner (don’t you love Americanisms?) from the Plate Glass show, in Salons C + D, on the same level as the main SNAG presentation venue!

This time it will feature one of my award-winning social unit works beautifully arranged, as I (and the universe – I did not invent the signage from which it takes its form,) originally intended.

…hopefully… There’s a lot to get done that afternoon, folks, because…

4\ Plate Glass

is having it’s 3rd and final outing in the USA. I’m making the display equipment out of cardboard, while coordinating the object drop-off for my current container-to-jewellery barter scheme (which is ultimately to complete the Monday-Gun Day project) which means I have also been able to add to the design a handy place to stash all the containers I receive from you this week!

Please consider helping out with the swap project if you can (forward it on to those distant cousins in Florida, why doncha? – or if you are at SNAG, I’ll have self-addressed padded envelopes for you to pick up to help you mail me something in return for your jewel), and definitely come and see this show. It’s received rave reviews in its two previous incarnations, and I think this is the best display yet! (Or it will be when I finish it…)

Phew! And if you’re chillin around these parts often, (and coming to P-town this week) you might recall I mentioned that it was my birthday couple of weeks back. The hottest rumor is a combined Seattle-peeps birthday celebration on one of the nights… Come say helloooo and get the skinny.

Monday – Gun Day

Concluding my research into guns that killed in the USA on January 1st, 2017

An enormous big THANK YOU to everyone who has got in touch from locations all over the USA in repose to my call for containers to help this research project take concrete form. I have almost half the objects I am seeking, with 41% of the places claimed. If you are in, or know people nearby, the following as-yet unclaimed places (a number next to the place indicates I need that more than one objects from that place), I will send you a newly made limited edition piece of jewellery in exchange for your item. Shoot me an email (with a pic of the object if you can) and then send the container here:

Melissa Cameron
2212 Queen Anne Ave. N. #412
Seattle WA 98109

See the original post for more details, and I need the objects ASAP as my deadline is looming…!

List of places still to be claimed for the container-jewel swap

/// Now, back to the last 10 guns

Twenty-five year old Jeffrey Pope was shot in Meridian, Miss. before 5am on New Years Day 2017. After an investigation Aundre Rashaun Tubbs handed himself into police on February 27 after a warrant was made for his arrest earlier that day.

Tubbs was later arrested in connection with a later fatal shooting in Meridian,  at which time it was reported that for his January 1st crime:

Meridian City Court Judge Robbie Jones ruled at Tubbs’ initial hearing on March 2 that Tubbs couldn’t be held on bond until the next available grand jury and had to be released due to lack of evidence.

The dismissal, made during an initial hearing for Tubbs, does not rule whether Tubbs is guilty or not guilty. It determines if it is likely he committed the crime.

It is unknown if Tubbs is still a suspect in the ongoing police investigation into Pope’s death. What that same article could shed light on was the weapon:

The city’s evidence at the preliminary hearing consisted of conflicting statements on Tubbs’ wardrobe and testimony from Tubbs’ associates who said Tubbs carried a 40-caliber pistol. Forty-caliber shell casings were found near Pope’s body the night of the murder.

Back in February I nominated a .40 semi-automatic pistol for my list, the Smith & Wesson Military & Police. It happens to by the weapon I’ve used as Default Pistol 2, and owing to its origin (and title – though remember that S&W like to recycle familiar titles to help out with marketing ) it crops up for officer fired weapons too. We add an extra one now to make an unbroken run of three.

Default Pistol 2 – S&W M&P

Christina Anderson (30) was shot in Birmingham, Alabama, on January 1st at close to 10pm. Police went to the scene to find evidence of a shooting but no victim, as she had been taken it to a local emergency room by way of the car of a Good Samaritan.  She was transferred from Princeton Baptist Medical Center to UAB Hospital, where she died on the afternoon of the 2nd from her injuries, having not regained consciousness.

The mother of one had been walking down the street with a friend when a group approached and there was a discussion/altercation. Her friend then told her to run. She received a bullet while fleeing. Police investigating think that her killer may have been known to her.

No evidence of gun reported. DP 1

Ruger SR1911 – Default Pistol 1

In Cypress, Texas, we have an unnamed homeowner killing an unnamed guest at a 200 person invitation-only New Years celebration. The killer, a 48 year-old male said that his son was hosting the party.

 The homeowner claims it took a turn when a drunk guest refused to leave.

According to that homeowner, the guest began fighting with him, and he had no other choice but shoot.

The wounded guest was pronounced dead on scene.

It was also reported that the homeowner shot him to prevent further disruption.

The neighborhood in Cypress is Dry Creek Airport – a gated community with private airport, with many of the neighboring properties having hangers on their land. A witness said the the party was taking place in the hanger of the property.

My multiple searches did not reveal any further evidence of the weapon, or even the names of the killer or his victim. It is reported that the killer has been cooperative, and that a grand jury will decide if the man faces charges.

Needless to say, I’m incredulous at all of this. DP2

Default Pistol 2 – S&W M&P

Another event in which the killer and victim are not named, happened outside of The Crazy Leprechaun in Philadelphia, PA at about 2:15 am on New Years Day. A thirty-one year old security guard was attacked by a thirty-two year old man when the guard refused entry into the closed bar in order to use the bathroom. The man and his friends attacked with a Club steering security lock and the guard also received a knife wound, and so shot his weapon twice, hitting the man once in his back. He was taken to hospital but later died. The last reports imply that charges were unlikely as the guard acted in self-defense. No weapon named. DP 1

Ruger SR1911 – Default Pistol 1

[We reach the point now where we diverge from the Gun Violence Archive listing again, as this is where the judge from this post is currently placed in the GVA’s list. As it turns out, though, there’s a replacement, which seemingly got added to the list at position 28. Owing to other complicated shenanigans on my initial spreadsheet, you might be surprised to find that I did have this city in the ‘places’ list (above), and I was instead missing Richmond, Virginia. I hadn’t compensated for the Judge appearing twice, and I had incorrectly recorded our Richmond victim (only in the spreadsheet, he’s recorded correctly here) which, lucky for me, meant that I just had to ask one of my Virginian volunteers to switch their allegiances by a few miles. Phew.]

Kristen Zambo for RRstar.com on the 5th of may, 2018, writes:

A Rockford man acquitted of murder in a fatal New Year’s Day 2017 shooting was sentenced on Friday to 10 years behind bars — the maximum sentence — for having a gun the morning four men were shot at a Rockford hotel.

Sean D. Burks, 32, was accused of killing Joshua Jamerson during a party at Cliffbreakers Riverside Hotel & Conference Center, 700 W. Riverside Blvd. Jamerson, 34, of Rockford, and three other men were shot. Burks was charged with 39 counts of various offenses including first-degree murder, aggravated discharge, aggravated battery and unlawful possession of a weapon by a felon. He was convicted of the unlawful possession of a weapon by a felon charge.

On the 9th of March this year Burks was cleared on the murder charges. It is still unclear who shot Jamerson, who died from a gunshot wound to the back that penetrated his spine. Police were called when a gunfight broke out in a hallway of Cliffbreakers. No specific weapons were mentioned in any of the reports I saw. DP 2

Default Pistol 2 – S&W M&P

Brothers Tony Lashuan McRae (31) and Quanta Guan McRae (29) of Ashboro, NC, were killed around 2am on New Years Day when an argument between themselves and suspects Curtis E. Little (25) and Rodney Jontae Patterson (27) escalated. Both suspects were eventually arrested. The men are survived by their children – Tony has six, and Quanta, three.

The last mention of the suspects is in an article about Randolph County’s new district attorney, and his hopes to clear a bunch of cases that are holding many murder suspects in jail. Little and Patterson are in a queue of 13 that begins with crimes that took place in 2007.

Little was reported arrested by East Orange police in New Jersey on the 12th of January, while Patterson turned himself in soon after his warrant was issued. The police were reported as saying that the incident occurred after an “altercation in the parking during a New Year’s Eve celebration in a strip shopping center on Shana Lane.” No weapons were mentioned. DP 1+2, one for each of Little and Patterson.

Ruger SR1911 – Default Pistol 1
Default Pistol 2 – S&W M&P

Brandon Moles (22), was shot in Knoxville, Tennessee just before 10:00pm on New Years Day, outside an apartment building. Taken to UT Medical Center for treatment of his injuries, he later died. The reports say he was shot in a dispute over illicit drugs, but did not name any suspects, and further internet searches revealed few other details about Moles. DP1

Ruger SR1911 – Default Pistol 1

Adrian Anguiano (20) was shot in the neck outside an apartment complex in Redmond, Washington, around 2am on New Years Day 2017.

Redmond firefighters responded to a fire alarm set off inside a large recreation room at the complex at 16800 N.E. 39th Court around 2 a.m. Sunday, police said. They didn’t find a fire but determined the alarm was likely set off by people smoking indoors.

While on scene, firefighters heard what sounded like a gunshot and called for police backup and medical assistance. Arriving officers found Anguiano dead from a gunshot wound just outside the recreation building, where a party had been under way.

As of March 30th, police were still looking for his killer and were hoping to speak with some of his over 200 fellow-party-goers from that night.

Default Pistol 2 – S&W M&P

Trevis Stephens (33) was shot inside bar by man who had just been kicked out. The alleged shooter, John Word (35) banged on the door in an attempt to reenter the bar. He eventually got a gun and fired two shots into the bar, hitting Stephens as he was attempting to hide. Stephens later died in hospital.

Initially another man wanted for questioning turned himself in and was released, no longer considered a person of interest. A warrant was later issued for Word, after police released security-camera image of him, and hours after they arrested a woman with complicity to murder. He then turned himself in. Several articles later revealed that he has a long criminal history, and had been let out of his last term early.

Clairese Murray (35) was the woman charged, for allegedly acting as a getaway driver. There were no details of the gun in any of the reports I read. DP 1

Ruger SR1911 – Default Pistol 1

On New Year’s Day, police found 41-year-old Mark Fields with a gunshot wound to the neck around 3 a.m. on a porch on the 1900 block of West Williard Street in Tioga. He was pronounced dead at the scene at 3:03 a.m. Police later arrested and charged 36-year-old Cauras Garland, of the 5300 block of North Camac Street.

Once again, there is a real paucity of information on this incident. The above was the extent of the mention in an article about eight shootings in early January in The Inquirer, and the only article that I, or the Gun Violence Archive before me, could find. Thanks to a different Mark Fields being a fortune 500 player, it’s hard to get any more intelligence down that line of googling.  Cauras Garland is a unique enough name hereabouts, but the only other thing that comes up aside from Facebook is his telephone number.

On a lack of evidence, I close my investigations with one final DP2.

Default Pistol 2 – S&W M&P

 

The investigation is over. Begin the making.

Can you help?

Searching for containers from specific places in the USA – to be made into art!

*** UPDATED May 20th***

containers from my collection

As I promised last week, I’m back in the US from Australia, where I was celebrating my 40th birthday with my family!

And now I’m here, I have a favor to ask:

Regular readers of this blog will be familiar with my series of posts, entitled: Monday – Gun Day, where I have been cataloguing the weapons used in each of the fatal shootings in the US on January 1st, 2017. (There’s more intel as to why in this post.) Thanks to the incredible resources of the Gun Violence Archive I’m almost through the research phase, and I’m ready to start making.

I was going to used objects – containers specifically – that I had to hand, but now that doesn’t feel right. I have objects from all over the place – I’ve picked them up in my travels throughout North America, Australia, Asia and Europe. And that is the problem. The rate of gun violence, as we are now almost constantly being reminded, is unique to each country. So using objects from other places in a project referencing gun violence in the USA doesn’t ring true.

So I suddenly find myself in need of containers from a specific list of places. Fifty-four places, in fact. And if you have a friend or relative in the area, please feel free to pass this along.

This is where you come in. If you happen to live in one of the places listed:

Send me a container to become a permanent part of this artwork, and I  will send you a limited edition jewellery piece in return.

Or if you’re to be going to Portland next week for the SNAG conference, you can drop off your object to me directly. If you don’t catch me before, I’ll be haunting the Adorned Spaces exhibition (booth 17 – kitty corner to In Touch in Salon C/D  with the Plate Glass exhibition – Friday 5-8pm.)

I sense your next question: “Container, what kind of container?”

Practically anything accepted – well washed food tins, plastic milk containers or even a yogurt tub, I don’t mind. Upcycle or re-gift me, please! I love a thrift store find, or new things from grocery stores or markets – I seek and find all over. Wood too! I just need to be able to cut or saw-pierce a motif into it, so not too thick, but most materials accepted. (Preferably not stainless steel – the best way to check that tiny, cute but essentially useless colander you have is with a magnet. I love magnetic steels – I’ll cut them for days – but if it doesn’t stick it’s probably regular stainless.)

Map from the Gun Violence Archive – Interactive Map

I’m looking for a single container (though multiples needed in a few places) from each of the places listed below. Or, if you own a souvenir item from one of these places, that you are willing to part with, I would gladly accept it. (And yes, I do consider ashtrays, coasters and trays containers, too. See image at top for a portion of my current stash.)

Logistics:

1/ Get in touch – blog@melissacameron.net

  • Please be in contact before you send something, to make sure I have not yet received anything from your place. I only need one container from most of this list, and so I’ll work on a first-come, first served basis.
  • If you happen to have an item in mind, please email me a photo of the container I can used for planning. I will also add your object as ‘pending’ on my list for others to see.

2/ Send the item (to arrive by  June 20th, 2018)

    • Send to:

Melissa Cameron
2212 Queen Anne Ave. N. #412
Seattle WA 98109

  • Or bring to: Portland Marriott Downtown Waterfront from May 23-26 and hand it to me direct!
  • Naturally, include the place name of the object in the packaging, as well as a name/address + email contact to ensure you get your jewel

3/ Jewels shipped in August

  • stay tuned to the blog for developments of this very special limited series.

*** List of places *** May 20th update  (and updated printable list of Places May 20):

Yes, it’s like a Kickstarter but instead of cash, it’s local objects being turned into jewels. A barter-kickstarter, if you will. Please pass this along, and lets come together and make some art!

 

Queries? Please email me: blog@melissacameron.net

Brooch Brunch

Check out the beauties at Brooch Brunch in the U District of Seattle on Saturday

It’s Mothers Day on Sunday, and Danaca Design in Seattle have organised a Brooch Brunch for the preceeding day, to kick of the weekend in style (and for you to get your mama something special from their roster of artists!) featuring a casual buffet-style champagne brunch and a gallery full of brooches made by local, national and international metalsmiths!

Brooch part of Cold Handle, 2012.

 

It’s on 12-3pm at Danaca Design
5619 University Way NE, Seattle, Washington 98105

Take your parental unit and treat them to a new bit o’bling.

I’d love to be there, but I’ll be celebrating a different milestone in Australia instead. Fear not, creative folk of the Northwest (or indeed, any other) persuasion, I’ll be back in Seattle early next week 😉

See y’all at the SNAG conference in Portland, no?

TES Newsletter

The Enamelist Society wants your new news, stat. Published in 2 months

Work in progress by Sarah Perkins at Ghost Ranch, NM, 2018

The deadline for the Enamelist Society Newsletter is hurtling towards me, and thus far, I have nothing. Nada. Niente. Nil. OK, so there’s actually Jane, exhibiting some works at SNAG (image, Jane?), but aside from that…

Please see my last post on being the purveyor of Global Enamel News for all the important details. The one thing I will remind y’all of is that I have to hand in my copy about 2 months before publication, so next Tuesday I’ll hand over stuff that will appear in print in early July. So if you have anything for July/August/September, please hit me up now.

And fair warning, I’m on holiday/vacation in Australia right now, so if you send something, I will receive but just not respond until the deadline is nigh, so please include all the details and images that you can as there won’t be time for me to cross-check details.

And now, to Busselton!

Monday – Gun Day

Incidents 52 + 53 – from the Gun Violence Archive, Jan 1, 2017

John McLaughlin, 42, was killed by two police officers in Springfield Township, Cincinnati, Ohio, after calling the police around 8:15pm on Monday the 1st of January, 2017. His call came while he was engaged in a domestic dispute with his wife, and after a friend of his wife had also made a call. McLaughlin had been in the process of throwing out his wife’s belongings when the police approached. After a 20 minute negotiation with him, which began outside, the officers, Nick Hornback, 23, and Brandon Musgrove, 31, (who were immediately placed on administrative leave after the shooting – that their superiors later indicated was justified – more background on the officers histories here), were still there as a visibly distraught McLaughlin sat down, put his head in his hands, and then produced a concealed hand gun. The officers asked him to put it down, and when he pointed it in the direction of the officers they fired seven times, with the victim receiving multiple hits.

Cincinatti Police Officers carry a Smith & Wesson 9mm Military and Police pistol, and those with higher ranking can carry, in addition to the regular M&P 9, a M&P compact. As regular officers the drawings are of two M&P 9mm weapons, which also happens to be Default Pistol 2.

Default Pistol 2 – S&W M&P
Default Pistol 2 – S&W M&P

Teresa Shields, 26, was killed while being driven in a white Audi by Stevie Waldon, after they left a New Year’s Eve party at 513 Lounge in Middletown Ohio. Waldon drove immediately to a hospital where Shields died and and he was treated for his wounds. Thirteen 0.223 Winchester rounds were found by police in the roadway at the crime scene. The police are still investigating – in May they released information with a call for witnesses, say that they had the suspect’s vehicle and were processing it for DNA evidence. They suspect that Shields’s boyfriend and ‘love of her life’ Waldon, is holding out on them. The last mention I saw of him indicated he was in jail awaiting a sentence for charges of drug trafficking.

The 0.223 Winchester is a rifle round (originally made by Remington, more via Wikipedia) but doesn’t readily telegraph the weapon that fired it – police indicated that it was a high-powered rifle, an “AR-type” . One of the weapons that does fire it is the old favourite, AR-15. As we learned earlier in this series, the AR-15 variant I drew for another work turns out to be a carbine rather than a full rifle, so this time I’ve chosen to draw a Springfield Armory AR-15 rifle.

Springfield Armory AR-15 Rifle

Pocket Puppets

Sound and Shadow – second performance

Aran Galligan – House of the Rising Sun

For those of you far from Seattle who expressed interest in the Sound and Shadow puppet performance over this last weekend, (Hey Inna!) let me put your curiosity at rest – it went really, really well! And there is a rumour that the theatre records all of the performances that go on there, so you never know, a YouTube link might one day fall of the back of a truck… (There was a bunch of copyrighted music involved, so we’ll have to see if we can get it online, and then how long it lasts once uploaded…)

 

Monday – Gun Day

More events from the 1st of Jan, 2017, from the Gun Violence Archive

No time for a deep dive today, so just a quick pair of guns:

Eighteen year old Kiara Tatum was killed when a man and a boy fired into a crowd standing outside in Memphis, TN, at about 8pm, from their vehicle. One report said that:

According to Memphis Police Department, 22-year-old Devante Robinson is accused of being one of two people inside a white car that fired shots at a crowd of people on Danville Circle. Kiara Tatum, 18, was killed in the shooting.

The other suspect was identified Tuesday as 17-year-old Jaylen Clayton.

Robinson is charged with first-degree murder, five counts of attempted first-degree murder, and using a gun during a felony.

An earlier report said that:

Clayton is charged with first-degree murder, five counts of attempted first-degree murder, and using a firearm during a felony.

Robinson was out on bond for reckless endangerment at the time, having been in another vehicle from which shots were fired (at children playing outside,) less than a week earlier. And as for Clayton, one of the latest articles I found said that the 17 year old was to be tried as an adult.

Between everything I read, a lot of weapons and ammunition were mentioned, but none named. Amazingly with two guns fired, and reportedly up to five other victims, Tatum was the only one found dead from a gunshot wound.  We’re up to DP 2 yet again, but I’ll add DP1 too, since the exact killer will probably go unidentified.

Default Pistol 2 – S&W M&P
Ruger SR1911 – Default Pistol 1

 

to put into your eyes

Shows and books with jewels, oh my!

Screen capture of the Making Out Mark online tour

A couple of things to get close to your face and take in:

This is the last weekend for the Pratt Teaching Artists show Making Our Mark at the Bellevue Arts Museum. If you can’t get there in physical form, you can take this excellent online 3D tour. Now there’s some words I never thought I’d form into a sentence.. It’s a fun show, and the 3d-tour is a great way to experience it.

P 52-53 of SNAG Jams 2018.
Bethany Laranda Wood – Look-out, Look-in, 2017
Laurel Fulton – Collectors Notes, 2017
Melissa Cameron – My House – Tanya Lippe’s Lunch Box, 2016
Al photos by the artists

SNAG JaMS – the Society of North American Goldsmiths have put together a book of the best-of jewellery and metals for the ending September 2017. It’s really beautifully produced – kudos to the designers and Marissa Saneholtz, the editor, as well as the SNAG board who brought it into fruition. It’s an idea borrowed from the New Glass Review, made annually by the Corning Museum of Glass, that documents the most exceptional works in our field from the year just passed. Like that publication, it will hopefully grow into an indispensable record of the best and brightest in our field, and be read by generations to come. The production values certainly speak to that aspiration.

Check out this years edition via that first link above, and be sure to get prepared to make your submission later this year.

Seattle – Enamel Classs

THIS WEEKEND! And one in June…

Image of a Resist neckpiece (that spells ‘resist’ in binary) in stainless steel and vitreous enamel.

Come hang out and do some Liquid Enamel for Steel and Copper with me at Pratt in Seattle this weekend! Why? Because enamel on steel is a unique process in the enamel world, and I’m not bad at it – see above* –  and, because opportunities to come spend time playing with me in the mighty USA are quickly running out.

I already put this news out on the socials (look at me, writing like the kids talk), so apologies for the duplication, and also I’m sorry if this is brand new to you, (it may not be the most sympathetic forum to tell y’all) but… We’re moving back to Australia in October.

Which makes this the second last opportunity that US folk have to join in a workshop with me while I’m still a full-time resident. I absolutely intend to come back and visit everyone, but getting working visas and employment authorization have only become more difficult the longer I have lived here, so who knows when I’ll be able to do this again.

The final weekend workshop I have scheduled is on the weekend of the 16th-17th of June at Danaca Design in the U district of Seattle. There we’re going to concentrate on Enameling Recycled Steel for Jewelry. That class will be some of the same, but also a little different since we’re going to walk the neighbourhood to find some of our materials on the street – basically duplicating how I tend to live my life. I’ve been working up the courage to take this risk with a whole class for a while, so I hope I’ll have a few courageous souls who’ll be interested in trying it out with me 😉

But same goes for this weekend! If you’re in the area and have ever thought “Hmm, an enamel class sounds good, but I have to do my Spring cleaning – I’ll get the next one”, maybe… you know..

 

*Enameling and firing steel chain has some quirks, so there’s a few tricks and tips that I’ve figured out in my practice that I’ll be sharing. And of course it comes along with all the usual info, much of which crosses over into all forms of enameling.